It's not known precisely how many of the world's 1.3 billion Muslims are Shia. The Shia are a minority, comprising between 10 percent and 15 percent of the Muslim population — certainly fewer than 200 million, all told.

The Shia are concentrated in Iran, southern Iraq and southern Lebanon. But there are significant Shiite communities in Saudi Arabia and Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India as well.

Although the origins of the Sunni-Shia split were violent, over thecenturies Shia and Sunnis lived peacefully together for long periods of time.

But that appears to be giving way to a new period of spreading conflict in the Middle East between Shia and Sunni.

"There is definitely an emerging struggle between Sunni and Shia to define not only the pattern of local politics, but also the relationship between the Islamic world and the West," says Daniel Brumberg of Georgetown University, author of Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran.

That struggle is most violent and dangerous now in Iraq, but it is a struggle that could spread to many Arab nations in the Middle East and to Iran, which is Persian.

One other factor about the Shia bears mentioning. "Shiites constitute 80 percent of the native population of the oil-rich Persian Gulf region," notes Yitzhak Nakash, author of The Shi'is of Iraq.

Shia predominate where there is oil in Iran, in Iraq and in the oil-rich areas of eastern Saudi Arabia as well.

The Partisans of Ali

The original split between Sunnis and Shia occurred soon after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, in the year 632.

"There was a dispute in the community of Muslims in present-day Saudi Arabia over the question of succession," says Augustus Norton, author ofHezbollah: A Short History. "That is to say, who is the rightful successor to the Prophet?"

Most of the Prophet Muhammad's followers wanted the community of Muslims to determine who would succeed him. A smaller group thought that someone from his family should take up his mantle. They favored Ali, who was married to Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.

"Shia believed that leadership should stay within the family of the Prophet," notes Gregory Gause, professor of Middle East politics at the University of Vermont. "And thus they were the partisans of Ali, his cousin and son-in-law. Sunnis believed that leadership should fall to the person who was deemed by the elite of the community to be best able to lead the community. And it was fundamentally that political division that began the Sunni-Shia split."

The Sunnis prevailed and chose a successor to be the first caliph.

Eventually, Ali was chosen as the fourth caliph, but not before violent conflict broke out. Two of the earliest caliphs were murdered. War erupted when Ali became caliph, and he too was killed in fighting in the year 661 near the town of Kufa, now in present-day Iraq.

The violence and war split the small community of Muslims into two branches that would never reunite.

The war continued with Ali's son, Hussein, leading the Shia. "Hussein rejected the rule of the caliph at the time," says Vali Nasr, author of The Shia Revival. "He stood up to the caliph's very large army on the battlefield. He and 72 members of his family and companions fought against a very large Arab army of the caliph. They were all massacred."

Hussein was decapitated and his head was carried in tribute to the Sunni caliph in Damascus. His body was left on the battlefield at Karbala. Later it was buried there.

It is the symbolism of Hussein's death that holds so much spiritual power for Shia.

"An innocent spiritual figure is in many ways martyred by a far more powerful, unjust force," Nasr says. "He becomes the crystallizing force around which a faith takes form and takes inspiration."

The Twelfth Imam

The Shia called their leaders imam, Ali being the first, Hussein the third. They commemorate Hussein's death every year in a public ritual of self-flagellation and mourning known as Ashura.

The significance of the imams is one of the fundamental differences that separate the two branches of Islam. The imams have taken on a spiritual significance that no clerics in Sunni Islam enjoy.

"Some of the Sunnis believe that some of the Shia are actually attributing almost divine qualities to the imams, and this is a great sin," Gause says, "because it is associating human beings with the divinity. And if there is one thing that's central to Islamic teaching, it is the oneness of God."

This difference is especially powerful when it comes to the story of the Twelfth Imam, known as the Hidden Imam.

"In the 10th century," says Vali Nasr, "the 12th Shiite Imam went into occultation. Shiites believe God took him into hiding, and he will come back at the end of time. He is known as the Mahdi or the messiah. So in many ways the Shiites, much like Jews or Christians, are looking for the coming of the Messiah."

Those who believe in the Hidden Imam are known as Twelver Shia. They comprise the majority of Shia in the world today.

"Twelver Shiism is itself a kind of messianic faith," Brumberg says. It is based "on a creed that the full word and meaning of the Koran and the Prophet Muhammad's message will only be made manifest, or real and just, upon the return of the Twelfth Imam, this messianic figure."

Political Power Fuels Religious Split

Over the next centuries, Islam clashed with the European Crusaders, with the Mongol conquerors from Central Asia, and was spread further by the Ottoman Turks.

By the year 1500, Persia was a seat of Sunni Islamic learning, but all that was about to change with the arrival of Azeri conquerors. They established the Safavid dynasty in Persia — modern-day Iran — and made it Shiite.

"That dynasty actually came out of what's now eastern Turkey," says Gregory Gause. "They were a Turkic dynasty, one of the leftovers of the Mongol invasions that had disrupted the Middle East for a couple of centuries. The Safavid dynasty made it its political project to convert Iran into a Shia country."

Shiism gradually became the glue that held Persia together and distinguished it from the Ottoman Empire to its west, which was Sunni, and the Mughal Muslims to the east in India, also Sunni.

This was the geography of Shiite Islam, and it would prevail into the 20th century.

There were periods of conflict and periods of peace. But the split remained and would, in the second half of the 20th century, turn out to be one of the most important factors in the upheavals that have ravaged the Middle East.

"Why has there been such a long and protracted disagreement and tension between these two sects?" asks Ray Takeyh, author of Hidden Iran: Paradox and Power in the Islamic Republic. "It has to do with political power."

In the 20th century, that meant a complex political dynamic involving Sunni and Shia, Arabs and Persians, colonizers and colonized, oil, and the involvement of the superpowers.

sundas_noor
4/28/2012

I AM A MUSLIM AND I THINK THAT WE ALL ARE ONE..AND WE ALL Must BE UNITED... THERE ARE NO SUNNI NO SHIA BY DEFAULT..!!
ONE ALLAH, ONE QURAN, SAME BELIEFS, THAN WHY ARE WE DIVIDED???

Reply
Mita
4/28/2012

Its really stupid, is not it??

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eastbangle
4/28/2012

If you watch the news at all you no doubt have heard about violence between the Shia's and Sunni's. But most likely you have no idea who these groups are. In fact when I hear people arguing about the situation in Iraq I like to ask them if they know who the Shia and Sunnis are. Most of the time I get a blank stare. So I am going to provide as much information as I can in this article in hopes of educating a few people.

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SOhail
4/28/2012

Why we are fighting for Shia or for Sunni? Is it really important?? I have no idea why people are busy such a stupid things

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randz
4/28/2012

I'm not a Muslim but I think Muslims have to talk to each other, because it doesn't matter if you're in Sunni or a member of Shia cause it's still under the religion of Islam. They have to be united, they both praise Allah as their God and only one bible in Quran, so what's the point of division? I guess the only reason in this is the political power and pride.

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Ronald adams
4/28/2012

I totally agree with you man. There is no religion, not any division by almighty, all is that between us. For power, money

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Ahmad Sufi
4/28/2012

As soon as we can stop this types of discrimination and make unity between us, it will be better for us. I have seen lot people who have no problem with shia and for shia vice versa.

Only those people, who are fighting for power and money are busy with Shia and Sunni...nothing else.

We have no problem between us man, we love all muslim, does not matter we shia or Sunni. We are brother, who are connected by Blood

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Sohail Akbari
4/28/2012

Hi everyone and my nice friend Salman

I really wondered to see this blog in your personal site. You are awesome man. As I am a shia in birth, I really dont feel good with Egyptian or Ohabi people of saudi arabia.

I liked you before, now it turned in love. You are very good man. Really I dont find any reason for that we should think about Shia sunni dividation. Like you, I like sunni peple.

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Aileen Fajardo
4/28/2012

For me, one essence of a religion or even just an organization is the unity of its members. They must have one belief and one stand on everything under their religion or organization. They must also be tasked to protect each other as brothers and sisters because they are under one belief. They must voluntarily care for each other and must be sensitive to each other's feelings and needs. So why do we have to rise the division between these Shia and Sunni people? They are both under the Islamic religion, and therefore they supposed to be brothers and sisiters. So why attemp to ive rise to the conflicts? Why attemp to give rise to a unexpected and unnecessary division between these two groups?

One of the main questions would be, do all of us know the Shia and Sunni people to judge them? They must also know who these people are. And upon knowing them, they still don't have the right to judge them or even be reponsible for the rise of conflict between these two Islamic groups. We should respect them as they are respecting us. We don't have the right to interfere on their religious beliefs and on their everyday living.

If money and political power trigger the said conflict, I think this issue is very weak. They praise power and money. They greed for more attention. But let me leave you a question. Do money and political power is essential in every religion? Do these earthly things may please Allah? Praise and love Allah not money and political power.

So, as what said earlier, religion must unite its followers. There is no sense in division. They are all under in one's hand - Allah's. So stop the fight, give love and share the teachings of Allah.

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